and Water Management
and Water Management
Research and Operational ApplicationsISSN: 2299-3835 eISSN: 2353-5652
Meteorology Hydrology and Water Management
Rainfall and water conditions in the region of the upper glacial in Europe
Zbigniew Szwejkowski, Ewa Dragańska, Iwona Cymes, Cristina Maria Timofte, Stanisław Suchecki, Ioan Craciun
Meteorol. Hydrol. Water Manage. (2017) vol. 5; (1): 15-28
Online publication date: 2017-01-18
The article contains descriptive statistics on rainfall in an area of the southern part of the last ice age in
Europe, and which now comprises the north-eastern part of the Poland. The study covers the period of 1981-2010.
The sums of the annual and monthly precipitation were calculated, while years and months were evaluated in relation
to the multi-annual and monthly averages. The frequency of daily precipitations was also determined. Values of SPI
(Standarized Precipitation Index) were calculated together with the values of the Selianinov Index, which measures
the environmental aspect of precipitation.
The average annual rainfall showed a spatial heterogeneity in the region from 700.1 mm (Elblag in the north-west) to
555.3 mm (Mława) in the east and south-east. The greatest precipitation occurred in the last decade of the analysed
period of thirty years. However, statistical analysis shows no significant trend change in precipitation during this
period. The number of years with sums of precipitation below 75% of the normal turned out to be very small. In
the annual cycle, summer precipitation prevailed. On a monthly basis, the averages sometimes exceeded the multiyear
averages by as much as 200%, while extreme lows in monthly precipitation reached levels below 25% of the
long-term averages. The calculated value of the SPI indicated that the most common drought conditions occurred in
May and June; such droughts did not occur in April and July. The Selianinov Index indicates that the least favorable
hydrothermal conditions occur in April and May, while the most favorable conditions occur in August and September.
Keywords:precipitation, drought, environment, upper glacial
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